Learning Arabic can be very intimidating and may take a long time, however, there are a number of practical methods to successfully do that. First of all, you have to learn the Arabic alphabet and memorize the names of its letters, their sounds, and their shapes and forms.\n\n\n\nThe Arabic letters take on up to four different shapes depending on their position in a word: Isolated, initial, medial, or final. Often, there are systematic relationships between those different shapes. Moreover, many letters share a common base and are distinguished from one another by additional signs (usually dots) above or below their central part.\n\n\n\nContextual formsArabic NameEnglish NameTranslit.DescriptionIsolatedEndMiddleBeginning\u0627\u200e\u0640\ufe8e\u200e\u0640\ufe8e\u200e\u0627\u200e\u0627\u0644\u0641\u02bealif\u02be \/ \u0101\u02bealif is a long "a" sound as in the word "salaam" or as in "apple".\ufe8f\u200e\u0640\u0628\u200e\u0640\u0628\u0640\u200e\u0628\u0640\u200e\u0628\u0627\u0621b\u0101\u02bebb\u0101\u02be is the equivalent of the English letter "b". It is pronounced like the "b" in "boy"\ufe95\u200e\u0640\u062a\u200e\u0640\u062a\u0640\u200e\u062a\u0640\u200e\u062a\u0627\u0621t\u0101\u02bett\u0101\u02be is one of two "t" sounds, this one is almost like a little "t". It is pronounced like the "t" in "ten".\ufe99\u200e\u0640\u062b\u200e\u0640\u062b\u0640\u200e\u062b\u0640\u200e\u062b\u0627\u0621\u1e6f\u0101\u02be\u1e6f\u1e6f\u0101\u02be is pronounced like the "th" in the words "thought" and "thanks"\ufe9d\u200e\u0640\u062c\u200e\u0640\u062c\u0640\u200e\u062c\u0640\u200e\u062c\u064a\u0645\u01e7\u012bm\u01e7 (also j, g)\u01e7\u012bm is pronounced like the English "j" such as in the names "Jim" and "Jill".\ufea1\u200e\u0640\u062d\u200e\u0640\u062d\u0640\u200e\u062d\u0640\u200e\u062d\u0627\u0621\u1e25\u0101\u02be\u1e25\u1e25\u0101\u02be has no exact equivalent in the English language. It is similar to an "h" but it's heavier. When you are trying to pronounce it try panting while saying "ha".\ufea5\u200e\u0640\u062e\u200e\u0640\u062e\u0640\u200e\u062e\u0640\u200e\u062e\u0627\u0621\u1e2b\u0101\u02be\u1e2b (also kh, x)\u1e2b\u0101\u02be(khaa') has no English equivilent. The closest translation would be to pronounce it like the "ch" in the German word "Bach."\n\n\n\nContextual formsArabic NameEnglish NameTranslit.DescriptionIsolatedEndMiddleBeginning\ufea9\u200e\u0640\u062f\u200e\u0640\u062f\u200e\u062f\u200e\u062f\u0627\u0644d\u0101ldd\u0101l is similar to the English "d". It is pronounced like the "d" in the word "dream" or in "dead".\ufeab\u200e\u0640\u0630\u200e\u0640\u0630\u200e\u0630\u200e\u0630\u0627\u0644\u1e0f\u0101l\u1e0f (also dh, \u00f0)In North African countries, such as Morocco, \u1e0f\u0101l is pronounced like the "th" in the words "this" and "that". however, this letter has no English equivalent in Middle Eastern countries. It is somewhat similar to a "z" but not exactly. Try saying "z" with a "d" in front of it "dz".\ufead\u200e\u0640\u0631\u200e\u0640\u0631\u200e\u0631\u200e\u0631\u0627\u0621r\u0101\u02berr\u0101\u02be is similar to the rolled "r" in Spanish. As in the word "arriba".\ufeaf\u200e\u0640\u0632\u200e\u0640\u0632\u200e\u0632\u200e\u0632\u0627\u064az\u0101yzz\u0101y is similar to the English "z". it is pronounced like the "z" in the word "zoo".\ufeb1\u200e\u0640\u0633\u200e\u0640\u0633\u0640\u200e\u0633\u0640\u200e\u0633\u064a\u0646s\u012bnss\u012bn is similar to the English "s". It is pronounced as the "s" in the words "skin" and "Steve".\ufeb5\u200e\u0640\u0634\u200e\u0640\u0634\u0640\u200e\u0634\u0640\u200e\u0634\u064a\u0646\u0161\u012bn\u0161 (also sh)\u0161\u012bn (sheen) is similar to the English letter combination "sh". It is pronounced as the "s" in the words "ship" and "sheet".\ufeb9\u200e\u0640\u0635\u200e\u0640\u0635\u0640\u200e\u0635\u0640\u200e\u0635\u0627\u062f\u1e63\u0101d\u1e63\u1e63\u0101d has no English equivalent but it is a velarized "s", similar to "s" but produced by elevating the tongue toward the velar ridge.\ufebd\u200e\u0640\u0636\u200e\u0640\u0636\u0640\u200e\u0636\u0640\u200e\u0636\u0627\u062f\u1e0d\u0101d\u1e0dd\u0101d has no English equivalent but it is similar to a "d". It's a deeper "d " pronounced with the tongue raised high against the velar ridge.\n\n\n\nContextual formsArabic NameEnglish NameTranslit.DescriptionIsolatedEndMiddleBeginning\ufec1\u200e\u0640\u0637\u200e\u0640\u0637\u0640\u200e\u0637\u0640\u200e\u0637\u0627\u0621\u1e6d\u0101\u02be\u1e6d\u1e6d\u0101\u02be has no English equivalent but it is similar to a "t". It's like a hard "t". It's a deeper "t" pronounced with the tongue raised high against the velar ridge.\ufec5\u200e\u0640\u0638\u200e\u0640\u0638\u0640\u200e\u0638\u0640\u200e\u0638\u0627\u0621Dha\u02be\/\u1e93\u0101\u02be\u1e93while in North African countries, like Morocco, this letter is pronounced as a velarized counterpart to \u1e0f\u0101l, It's pronounced as a velarized counterpart to "z" in Middle Eastern countries (including Egypt).\ufec9\u200e\u0640\u0639\u200e\u0640\u0639\u0640\u200e\u0639\u0640\u200e\u0639\u064a\u0646\u02bfayn\u02bf\u02bfayn is probably the hardest sound for an English speaker to produce. It has no English equivalent at all and does not even sound close to any letter in the English language. It feels and sounds somewhat like you are gagging while saying "ah". It's like the first sound in the hip-hop "a'ight."\ufecd\u200e\u0640\u063a\u200e\u0640\u063a\u0640\u200e\u063a\u0640\u200e\u063a\u064a\u0646\u0121ayn\u0121 (also gh)\u0121ayn is another unfamiliar sound for an English speaker to produce. it is pronounced like the French "r" in "France".\u0641\u200e\u0640\u0641\u200e\u0640\u0641\u0640\u200e\u0641\u0640\u200e\u0641\u0627\u0621f\u0101\u02beff\u0101\u02be is similar to the English "f".It is pronounced like the "f" in the words "fun" and "life"\ufed5\u200e\u0640\u0642\u200e\u0640\u0642\u0640\u200e\u0642\u0640\u200e\u0642\u0627\u0641q\u0101fqq\u0101f has no exact English equivalent although it is sometimes similar to the English letter "q". To pronounce it close the back of your throat and say "chough".\ufed9\u200e\u0640\u0643\u200e\u0640\u0643\u0640\u200e\u0643\u0640\u200e\u0643\u0627\u0641k\u0101fkk\u0101f is similar to the English "k". It is pronounced like the "k" in the words "Keven" and "kit".\ufedd\u200e\u0640\u0644\u200e\u0640\u0644\u0640\u200e\u0644\u0640\u200e\u0644\u0627\u0645l\u0101mll\u0101m is similar to the English "l". It is pronounced like the "l" in the words "luck" and "love".\ufee1\u200e\u0640\u0645\u200e\u0640\u0645\u0640\u200e\u0645\u0640\u200e\u0645\u064a\u0645m\u012bmmm\u012bm is similar to the English "m". It is pronounced like the "m" in the words "month" and "mice".\n\n\n\nContextual formsArabic NameEnglish NameTranslit.DescriptionIsolatedEndMiddleBeginning\u0646\u200e\u0640\u0646\u200e\u0640\u0646\u0640\u200e\u0646\u0640\u200e\u0646\u0648\u0646n\u016bnnn\u016bn is similar to the English "n". It is pronounced like the "n" in the words "noon" and "night".\ufee9\u200e\u0640\u0647\u200e\u0640\u0647\u0640\u200e\u0647\u0640\u200e\u0647\u0627\u0621h\u0101\u02behh\u0101\u02be is similar to the English "h". It is pronounced like the "h" in the words "have" and "hat". Ho! Ho! Ho!\ufeed\u200e\u0640\u0648\u200e\u0640\u0648\u200e\u0648\u200e\u0648\u0627\u0648w\u0101ww \/ \u016b \/ aww\u0101w is similar to the English letters "w" and "o". It is pronounced like the "w" in the words "waow" and "William". It is pronounced like the "oo" in the words "food" and "good".\ufef1\u200e\u0640\u064a\u200e\u0640\u064a\u0640\u200e\u064a\u0640\u200e\u064a\u0627\u0621y\u0101\u02bey \/ \u012b \/ ayy\u0101\u02be is similar to the English "y". It is pronounced like the "y" in the words "yellow" and "yes". It is also pronounced like the "ee" in "breeze" and "freeze". Sometimes the letter \u064a (y\u0101\u02be) will appear without its two dots underneath it. this will be addressed in later lessons.\n\n\n\nAdditional Combinations and Signs\n\n\n\nContextual formsNameTranslit.IsolatedEndMiddleBeginning\u0623\u200e\u0640\u0623\u200e\u0640\u0623\u200e\u0623\u200e\u02bealif hamza\u00e1\u0625\u200e\u0640\u0625\u200e\u0640\u0625\u200e\u0625\u200e\u02bealif low hamza\u0105\ufe81\u200e\u0640\u0622\u200e\u0640\u0622\u200e\u0622\u200e\u02bealif madda\u02be\u0101\ufe93\u200e\u0640\u0629\u200e\u0640\u0629\u200e\ufe93\u200et\u0101\u02be marb\u016b\u1e6da\u200eh ort \/ h \/ \u1e97\ufeef\u200e\u0640\u0649\u200e \u200e \u200e\u02bealif maq\u1e63\u016bra\u00e4\n\n\n\nThe only two-letter combination to have a separate form in the alphabet is the combination l\u0101m + \u02bcalif:- Isolated: \ufefb\u200e- final or medial: \u0640\ufefc\u200e\n\n\n\nThe Arabic alphabet has been adapted to countless languages, such as Persian, Ottoman, Urdu, Malay, and Pashto. These Languages use the same writing system as in Arabic with slightly\/significantly modified shapes to write any additional letters that show a structural difference from Arabic.